Traditionally, there are different type of actors identified in city making. However, this makes the divide between citizens and government quite rigid. Therefore, we made another categorisation based on roles. These roles are much more about what people actually do in city making, regardless their formal function of civil servant, private entrepreneur, social initiative taker
Four levels or types of tools are identified in the context of Participatory City Making. These types or levels are loosely based on the levels of design that Buchanan (1992) identifies in his paper on 'Wicked problems in design thinking' where he identifies four areas for discovery in design: signs, things, (inter)actions and complex environments.
This paper was presented at the Relating Systems thinking and Design 6 conference in Oslo, 2017. For papers presented by others in Oslo see the RSD6 website. For the PDF of the full paper, click this link: Ten Types of Emerging City Makers. For the slides of the presentation at the conference, see this link: Landscape of Emerging City